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Europe and Russia have launched a joint mission to explore the atmosphere of Mars and hunt for signs of life on the red planet.
The unmanned ExoMars probe is a collaboration between the European Space Agency and Roscosmos. It took off March 14 aboard a Russian rocket. It is expected to reach Mars in October.
The probe's Trace Gas Orbiter will analyze methane and other gases in the Martian atmosphere. It wants to determine where they are coming from, said Paolo Ferri, ESA's head of mission operations.
Methane is created by biological or geological activity. It breaks down within a relatively short period of time once it reaches the atmosphere.
"It cannot be older than 400 years. That means there has been either biological or geological activity in this timeframe," said Ferri. "Four hundred years is nothing. If there is methane, it means there is basically a process going on now."
The prospect of finding life on Mars, even microscopic organisms, has excited scientists for some time. So far, none has been discovered.
"The fact that they've not found life doesn't mean certainly that there's no life there," said Ferri. He noted that much of the planet's vast surface hasn't been closely examined.
That task will fall to a rover that ESA plans to send to Mars in 2018. Until then, the orbiter will have time to find a good landing spot and conduct a test run using a trial lander called Schiaparelli. The trial lander is on board the probe.
If life is discovered, it actually raises questions about whether future manned missions to the planet should be attempted, said Mark McCaughrean. He is senior science adviser at ESA.
"Weirdly, if we find life on Mars, it actually really begs the question if we should go at all with human beings because of that idea of planetary protection," he said at ESA mission control in Darmstadt, Germany. "We would take with us bugs. And if now those bugs meet Martian bugs, that could be a disaster."
Landing a spacecraft on Mars is notoriously difficult. Several attempts have failed, including ESA's Beagle 2 probe that was part of the Mars Express mission in 2003. Beagle 2 disappeared during the landing process, a setback the agency is keen to avoid this time, hence the decision to separate the orbiter mission from the actual landing attempt.
"It was quite clear that putting both things in one mission drove up the complexity," said Ferri.
ExoMars, which cost the European Space Agency alone $1.44 billion, is the first interplanetary mission jointly undertaken by ESA and Roscosmos.
The orbiter also has a NASA-built radio on board. The radio will help relay signals from other Mars probes.
CRITICAL THINKING QUESTION
Why did Paolo Ferri say “Four hundred years is nothing?”
Write your answers in the comments section below