Frizzy-haired orangutan may be new great ape
There is a remote population of frizzy-haired orangutans on an Indonesian island of Sumatra. They seem to be a new species of primate. That is according to scientists.
The orangutans are thought to be the newest members of the family tree of advanced animals that includes humans. But they may not be around much longer. Their numbers are small. Their habitat is so fragmented. They are in danger of going extinct. That's according to the scientists who studied them.
A study was published in the journal Current Biology. It said there are no more than 800 of the primates. The researchers named them Pongo tapanuliensis. They are the most endangered great ape species.
The researchers say the population is highly vulnerable. Its habitat is facing further pressure from development.
The scientists issued a warning. "If steps are not taken quickly to reduce current and future threats to conserve every last remaining bit of forest we may see the discovery and extinction of a great ape species within our lifetime," they said.
It's the first great ape species to be described by scientists in nearly 90 years. Previously, science has recognized six great ape species. The six species are Sumatran and Bornean orangutans. They are eastern and western gorillas. And they are chimpanzees and bonobos. Some scientists also classify humans as great apes. But others argue for a separate categorization.
The research is based on several sources. One was an analysis of the skeleton of an adult male killed in a conflict with villagers. Another is a genetic study showing the population's evolutionary split from other orangutans. This occurred about 3.4 million years ago. And another is an analysis since 2006 of behavioral and habitat differences.
The primates are confined to a range of about 425 square miles. It is in the Batang Toru forest. The forest is in the Tapanuli districts of Northern Sumatra. Historically, the population had low levels of interbreeding with Sumatran orangutans further north. But that completely ceased 10,000 to 20,000 years ago. That's according to the genetic study.
Unique characteristics include genetic evidence and the physical differences. These include frizzier hair and a smaller head. There are other unique characteristics. Those include diet and restriction of habitat to upland areas. It also includes the male's long call.
There is no standardized international system for recognition of new species. But to be taken seriously a discovery requires at least publication in a credible peer-reviewed scientific journal.
Russell Mittermeier is a primatologist. He is head of the primate specialist group at the International Union for the Conservation of Nature. He called the finding a "remarkable discovery." It puts the onus on the Indonesian government to ensure the species survives.
He was not one of the 37 authors of the study. But he was "very excited" by the research.
Last year, the IUCN classified Bornean orangutans as critically endangered. This was due to a sharp population decline. It was caused by destruction of their forest habitat. It was destroyed for palm oil and pulp wood plantations. Sumatran orangutans have been classified as critically endangered since 2008.
Matthew Nowak is one of the study's authors. He said the Tapanuli orangutans live in three pockets of forest. They are separated by non-protected areas.
"For the species to be viable into the future, those three fragments need to be reconnected via forest corridors," he said.
The authors are recommending that development plans for the region be stopped by the government. Those plans include a hydropower plant.
"It is imperative that all remaining forest be protected and that a local management body works to ensure the protection of the Batang Toru ecosystem," Novak said.
Wiratno is the director general of conservation of natural resources and ecosystems at Indonesia's Forestry and Environment Ministry. He told a news conference in Jakarta that most of Batang Toru forest was designated as protected in December 2015.
He said its management will be a priority and is a "great challenge."
"We are deeply committed to maintaining the survival of this species," said Wiratno, who uses one name.
The Batang Toru orangutan population was found during a field survey. It was found by researcher Erik Meijaard in 1997. A research station was established in the area in 2006.
It was not until 2013 that scientists realized how unique the population was. This was when the adult male skeleton became available. It sparked the largest genomic study of wild orangutans ever carried out to provide further evidence of a third orangutan species.