China plans to reveal more terra cotta warriors
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China is expanding the ranks of the famed Terra Cotta Warrior army with new excavations. They are expected to yield hundreds more of the ancient life-size figures.
The museum overseeing the vast mausoleum of China's first emperor says it began work March 30. The work is on the tomb's No. 2 pit. It is smaller in scale but believed to be richer in archaeological value than the already excavated No. 1 pit.
Along with 1,400 warrior and horse statues, the pit is believed to contain 89 war chariots and 116 mounted soldiers. They offer invaluable insights into the military culture of the Qin dynasty. That is according to the museum website.
"The No. 2 pit contains the true essence of the Terra Cotta army," the museum's former curator was quoted as saying.
The Terra Cotta army was discovered in 1974. It has become one of China's biggest tourist draws. It attracts hundreds of thousands of visitors each year. The warriors have joined the giant panda as a tool of Chinese "soft power." Several batches are being exhibited overseas to enthusiastic crowds.
The army was built to guard the tomb of the first Qin emperor. His name was Qin Shi Huang. He died in 210 A.D. During his lifetime, he conquered much of what is now modern China.
In all, the tomb contains three pits. They are thought to hold more than 8,000 figures. Archers, infantry soldiers, mounted cavalry, horse-drawn chariots, officers, acrobats, musicians and others are included.
The third pit is adjacent to the emperor's sprawling mausoleum. It lies under a 250-foot mound. It remains un-excavated as experts debate the pros and cons of doing so.
Ancient accounts tell of a huge complex of chambers. Included are underground rivers filled with flowing mercury. There are also the remains of craftsmen and imperial concubines. They were sealed alive in the tomb with the dead emperor.
The Terra Cotta statues weigh about 400 pounds each. They range in height from 6 feet to 6 feet 5 inches depending on rank. Generals are the tallest.
The statues originally were brightly painted. They are intricately detailed with armor, top knots, weapons and boots. No two figures are alike. Craftsmen are believed to have modeled them after a real army.
A ruthless figure of fear and awe in Chinese history, Qin built an extensive system of roads and canals along with an early incarnation of the Great Wall of China. He unified measurements and established a single written language, currency and legal statutes.
Critical thinking challenge: Why is the army made of terra cotta?