Asia bracing for destruction by alien pest: fall armyworms
Fall armyworms are a longtime American pest. They are munching their way around the globe. They are raising an alarm in Asia after entrenching themselves in Africa.
Experts say the insect was first found outside the Americas in 2016. That was in Africa. It has infested up to half of some crops. Those crops include maize and sorghum. They also include millet. It's now spread through Yemen and South Asia. It has spread to Thailand and China.
This new arrival to her territory worries Uraporn Nounart. She is a specialist on farm pests. She works in Thailand's Agriculture Department.
"We never had this one before. They just were found late last year and in January in this area. It's a big problem." That's what she said while visiting farms recently in Kanchanaburi province, northwest of Bangkok.
The worms can cause damage at all stages of a corn crop. But the worst may be when the larvae, pinky-sized caterpillars turn sweet corn cobs to mush. The incursions of the alien species is a threat. It could upend the balance between costs and returns for farmers in Thailand and elsewhere.
Pesticides are costly and toxic. And they don't always work.
The bug's native regions are from Argentina to northern Canada depending on the season. Its natural enemies are predators, parasites and pathogens. These include bacteria or viruses. They help keep it in check. But the new habitats may lack some of those defenses. That's according to the United Nations' Food and Agricultural Organization. It's convening a conference in Bangkok. It will help share information and strategies on battling the pest.
Keeping it in check is an urgent priority. Asia is mostly known for rice growing. But maize is an important staple crop. It is a crucial source of feed for poultry and livestock.
There were armyworms in all stages of the crop, from seedlings to knee-high to "elephant's eye" high. That was in the cornfields in Kanchanaburi.
Some local farmers were working hard to limit their losses. They are pulling the tops off stalks grown for baby corn and discarding them. This is to help limit how much damage the worms could do. That tactic causes the plant to sprout new ears that can be harvested later.
Organic farmers don't use the usual farm chemicals so they can sell the waste corn stalks as cattle fodder. Spraying with biomaterials like fungi and thread worms that may be parasites of the worms can help. But some fields still lost about a third of the first baby corn harvest.
"We've never seen anything like this." That is according to one farmer named Sanae.
In another field, Thanwa, sought help. He had his fields sprayed using drones. For taller plants, that's about the only way for the small-scale farmers to get pesticides up onto the affected parts of the plant once the worms are established.
Uraporn Nournart and her team of young scientists scrambled through the fields. They peeked into corn husks. They pulled apart damaged stalks. They collected worms and eggs for monitoring. They're conducting trials in fields like the one Sanae was working her way through. It is a tranquil plot of waist-high corn ringed by banana trees.
Charuwat Taekul is an entomologist at the Department of Agriculture. He specializes in microscopic parasitic wasps. He was collecting egg clusters to use in his research into natural enemies of the worms. It's unclear if such wasps would be effective in keeping the fall armyworms under control. But it's one of various strategies being considered.
"Putting into place adequate management measures once a country gets invaded by FAW is important," said Marjon Fredrix. She is an expert with the U.N.'s FAO based in Bangkok. "However, the likelihood of further spread is real."
She notes that the worm's adult moths can fly more than 100 kilometers (60 miles) a night. They can fly even farther if they're carried by the wind.
The best case scenario, says Fredrix, would be farmers successfully scouting for and finding the worms early on. This would enable them to keep them under control. The FAO has developed an app that teaches the basics. It shows farmers how to find and deal with fall armyworms.
"This new pest needs to be managed in years to come, and farmers will need to develop skills to do so in a sustainable manner," Fredrix said.
The help came a bit too late for Yodsapon, a farmer in Tha Muang. He follows Uraporn's team stoically as it winds its way through his wrecked field of sweet corn.
At first glance, the 2-meter-high (6.5-foot-high) stalks look vigorous. They have good-sized ears that are nearly picking size. But a closer look shows holes in the stalks where the worms have worked their way inside. They have munched ear after ear into yellowish brown mush.
The family has other sources of income. They own a small eco-hostel set in their tropical garden. But income from that is unstable. The corn crop will be missed, Yodsapon says.
He's thinking hard about what to do next: switch to another crop? Cassava? Potato?
A good harvest from the field would have netted 2,000-3,000 baht ($65-$100), he says. He expects no income from this one, and spraying repeatedly to try to vanquish the worm could triple his costs.
"In that case, I can't afford it," he says.