How magma behaves when it gets gassed up
How magma behaves when it gets gassed up Geologist Ben Andrews taking video on the volcano Santa María in Guatemala. (Smithsonian photo/gnuckx, public domain)
How magma behaves when it gets gassed up
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Lava is the most famous hazard of volcanoes. It is featured in movies, and it is used to describe lamps, chocolate cakes, and mobile phone cases. But lava is only part of the volcano story. Lava is what we call magma when it flows out of a volcano, and magma is molten - or melted - rock. While you would not want to stand in lava, which can be as hot as 2,000 Fahrenheit, at a walking pace you could outrun the majority of lava flows. So, what’s so hazardous about a volcanic eruption?

Sometimes magma does not flow out of a volcano, but instead explodes. When that exploding mixture of hot gas, magma, and rock comes out, it is fast and unpredictable. In an explosive eruption, pieces of hardening magma and rock are spewed upward in a hot plume of gas. They range from the tiny particles that make up volcanic ash to chunks the size of cars. As the plume blows downwind, it drops materials like a hail storm, littering the landscape with volcanic rocks. A pyroclastic flow of hot gases carrying the heavier material may pick up speed as it sweeps down from the volcano. As the flow mixes with the surrounding air, lighter ash may get lofted up in a cloud and travel as far as thousands of miles. 

While the bigger chunks are an immediate hazard to people and wildlife around the volcano, the cloud of ash takes a long-term toll that can be devastating. The 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens in Washington state produced a pyroclastic flow that scoured the landscape at speeds up to 600 miles per hour, and then lofted ash that settled on 11 states over the next few days. The 2010 eruption of Iceland’s Eyjafjallajökull volcano sparked electrical storms and an ash plume more than 5 miles high that spread over Europe and grounded airline travel for days. 

Geologists who study volcanoes - volcanologists - are trying to better understand the behavior of these pyroclastic currents. Given the danger of capturing data directly from an explosive eruption, volcanologists such as Smithsonian’s Dr. Ben Andrews have found ways to capture data from a distance and simulate flows in laboratories. Ben’s Eruption Simulator uses laser beams and talcum powder to observe how erupted materials get distributed upward and outward in different scenarios.  

Learn more about Ben’s volcano research in this "Smithsonian Science How" archival webcast. During How Volcanic Eruptions Send Materials Up and Out, Ben will take you on an explosive journey while answering questions. 

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What is magma?
Write your answers in the comments section below

  • annec-cel
    1/05/2018 - 01:10 p.m.

    Magma is molten rock beneath the Earth's surface. Much of the planet's mantle is technically magma. Once it reaches the surface, it is called lava, but the properties do not drastically change.

  • TimT-dec
    1/16/2018 - 02:10 p.m.

    Magma is molten melted rock found inside a volcano. Once mamga leaves the volcano, it is no longer magma but now calledn lava. Magma is hot enough to melt down any material. When a volcano erupts it can erupt tons of smoke heated by the magma be much more dangerous than lava.

  • MakaylaP-dec
    1/16/2018 - 02:11 p.m.

    It is hot rock and other materials that are heated up and is exposed to earth's surface.

  • EthanW-dec
    1/16/2018 - 02:12 p.m.

    Magma is a molten rock from the inside of a volcano. That also turns into lava once it is above the surface.

  • ZanderG-dec
    1/16/2018 - 02:13 p.m.

    Magma is lava that has not been erupted yet. It is also molten rock that is sometimes above 2k degrees

  • ZekeK-dec
    1/16/2018 - 02:14 p.m.

    Magma is the mixture of molten materials inside of a volcano. Once the volcano has erupted, it will shoot out magma which is then called lava.

  • MadisonH-dec
    1/16/2018 - 02:14 p.m.

    Magma is lava when it has erupted from the volcano. Magma is made up of melted rock that could be 2000 fahrenheit.

  • AllenH-dec
    1/16/2018 - 02:14 p.m.

    Magma is a hot liquid formed in the earths crust. Magma forms lava and other igneous rocks by cooling.

  • NoahS-dec
    1/16/2018 - 02:15 p.m.

    Magma is melted rock. Magma is hot.

  • SavanahC-dec
    1/16/2018 - 02:15 p.m.

    The hot molten or melted rocks.

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