Why Christopher Columbus was the perfect icon for a new nation looking for a hero
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America's love affair with Christopher Columbus has been a rocky one. Some savor his day to celebrate Italian-American heritage. Others chafe at the impropriety of honoring a man who enslaved and killed thousands of native peoples. But our many statues and "Columbias" show how passionately most of the nation once embraced Columbus.
There's a lot of evidence that the whole affair began rather poorly. It was not with affection for Columbus himself. Rather, it was a disdain for England. And they wanted a uniquely American hero.
As Columbia University historian Claudia Bushman says in "America Discovers Columbus: How an Italian Explorer Became an American Hero", the cult of Columbus rose in part because it "provided a past that bypassed England."
Native Americans called these shores home. They lived here for perhaps 15,000 years before Columbus arrived. Norsemen reached North America, too. And they did it centuries before Columbus. And even his contemporaries may have reached the New World first. In any event, Columbus never even set foot on the North American mainland. John Cabot did. He did it in 1497.
So how did Columbus become the idealized symbol of New World discovery? It didn't happen right away. Columbus, Cabot and other explorers had been mostly bypassed by history. This occurred for several centuries after their voyages of discovery.
"By the time Columbus dies, he's kind of a forgotten figure. John Cabot was as well. Both of them were largely ignored within a decade or so of their deaths," says Evan Jones. He is a University of Bristol historian. "In the mid-1700s, they were mentioned in history books. But as rather peripheral figures. Not as heroes."
The 200th anniversary of Columbus's landing was in 1692. It featured neither words nor deeds honoring the explorer. This is according to University of Notre Dame historian Thomas J. Schlereth's 1992 study. It appeared in the Journal of American History. The study coincided with the 500th anniversary of the landing.
American colonists needed a heroic symbol for their new, independent nation. Columbus, with some less-than-true narrative tweaks, fit the bill rather nicely. Cabot did not. This was despite the fact he was no Englishman. He was an Italian like Columbus.
"John Cabot is a much better person to have made much of," Bushman adds. But Cabot sailed under an ill-timed flag.
"Particularly after 1776, the Americans don't really want to associate themselves with things, including Cabot, that represent British claims to North America at a time when the United States is asserting its independence," Jones notes. "What they like about Columbus is that at this time he's being portrayed as being almost an Enlightenment figure. He represents freedom. (He is) a guy who had turned his back on the Old World and sailed in the name of a monarch. And then been treated very badly by that monarch."
(Widespread accusations of colonial misgovernance led the Spanish crown to have Columbus arrested. He returned to Spain in chains. He served a short prison term. Though King Ferdinand freed him and later financed a fourth voyage, Columbus's prestige and power would never really recover.)
Cabot isn't forgotten everywhere. His Discovery Day is celebrated in Newfoundland and Labrador. There, he set foot on mainland North America. But he quickly faded from U.S. history. This happened even as Columbus began a truly meteoric rise.
By 1777, the American poet Philip Freneau described his country as "Columbia, America as sometimes so called from Columbus, the first discoverer." There were others who advocated that the 13 states should adopt the name Columbia. This was instead of the United States of America.
"In early American textbooks from the 1700s, Columbus is the first chapter. Columbus starts American history," says Claudia Bushman. "There's nothing about the Indians."
In extreme cases, Bushman adds, Columbus has been used to hide the Native American era. And in some cases he is used to hide the British colonies.
If the cult of Columbus was always more about an ideal than the man himself, that concept found full expression in the creation of Columbia. It is a feminine figure. It came to represent the young New World nation.
The adjective Columbian was applied to stand for uniquely American virtues. It graced everything. It was found in schoolbooks and learned societies. One was the Columbian Institute for the Promotion of the Arts and Sciences. It became a major influence on what later became the Smithsonian Institution. "Hail Columbia" was written for George Washington's first inauguration. It was refitted with lyrics nine years later. It was the nation's defacto national anthem until the close of the 19th century.
Where she did not come from, not really, was Christopher Columbus the man. Columbus as a historical personage, rather than as a symbol, wasn't really visible until Washington Irving's 1827 biography. The book essentially re-imagined him, Bushman explains.
But neither the humanizing Irving portrayal nor the symbolic Columbus squares with the deeds of the man himself.
"It's a shock to go back and read the original documents. And see that all the mean things they say about Columbus are true," Bushman says. "He was a terrible figure really, who somehow became an idealized symbol for a nation. It's simply remarkable how these things happen in history."