Lava lake explodes in Hawaii
Molten lava, rocks and gas went flying through the air. This was on Hawaii's Kilauea volcano. Everything went in motion after an explosion. It was caused by the partial collapse of a crater wall.
The collapse triggered the small explosion. It spread lava and debris around the rim of Kilauea's Halemaumau Crater. This is according to the U.S. Geological Survey's Hawaiian Volcano Observatory.
Janet Babb is a geologist with the USGS. She compared the blast that happened on May 3 to taking a hammer to the top of a bottle of champagne.
"You look at the bottle and you see the liquid. But you don't see the gas," she said. "There's a lot of gas in the lava. And so, when that rock fall hits the lava lake, it's like the moment you knock the top of the champagne bottle off. That gas is released and it hurls molten lava and rock fragments."
Rocks overhang the lava lake. The rocks are altered by gases coming from the lava, Babb said. The rocks eventually give way. They collapse into the lava, causing an explosion.
The material was hurled about 280 feet skyward, she said. No one was injured.
Video of the event shows a wall of rocks sliding into a lava lake. The lake had risen to a record-high level. The slide caused an explosion that sent fist-size chunks of rock onto the Halemaumau visitor overlook. The outlook area has been closed since 2008. That is when the lava lake formed.
There could be fallout of ash and dust from this type of event. But it's very unlikely that anyone could be injured, Babb said. Wind direction dictates the amount of debris that lands in visitor areas. It is relatively common, she said.
The last time molten lava was visible in the crater was in 1982. A fissure erupted. The last time there was a lake similar to this one was in 1974.
The vent within Halemaumau Crater has been rising and falling since it first opened. It reached a record high last week. Even at its previous highest level in October 2012, the lake was too low for people to see. During the day, people could view the gas rising from the lake. At night, people could see the orange glow from the lava.
From the early 1800s up until 1924, there was a continuous lake of lava at Kilauea summit within Halemaumau. At that time, the crater was about half the diameter of what it is now.
In 1924, there was a huge eruption inside the volcano. That event doubled the size of the crater.
Since 1924, lava lakes have been present at different times. In 1967 and 1968, the entire crater was filled with molten lava. You can still see a "bathtub ring" on the walls of the crater. It's where the lava had risen to at that time.
Following the May 3 blast, a magnitude 3.6 earthquake was felt. It happened in the area early the next day. That was according to the Geological Survey.
Critical thinking challenge: What does a bottle of champagne have in common with this volcano?