Kenya tries to balance turtles and tourism
A turtle drags itself along a white sandy beach. It splashes through the gentle warm Indian Ocean. Then it vanishes with a plop. It had just become one of 13,750 turtle success stories on a stretch of Kenyan coastline. But the land is under pressure from developers.
Kenya is striving to strike a balance. The country is developing its 330 miles of coastline for a billion-dollar tourism industry. It will employ a half-million people. At the same time, it is preserving the environment that attracts those visitors. As the East African nation does so, some experts say that turtles are key. That's because they are so picky when it comes to laying eggs. If the right environment is maintained for them, then things are going well.
Kenya's record is mixed in protecting endangered turtles. But now it is going pretty well, a top wildlife official says.
One of several sore spots for conservationists and locals is a hotel. It was built by former Renault F1 tycoon Flavio Briatore.
The dispute centers around Briatore's Billionaire Resort. It is on Malindi beach. The resort has a 100-meter concrete seawall. It protects the property and guests from the elements.
Malindi resident David Kirk said the resort has been an "absolute environmental disaster." He said forests full of nesting birds were destroyed. Soil was eroded. The seawall prevented turtles from coming ashore to lay eggs.
Resort general manager Stephanie Ravessoud disagreed. She said the seawall's construction followed all government requirements. The seawall respects the environment, she said.
"Erosion has been there for decades. Everybody knows that sand in our area was being washed away long before the building of our wall," she said.
Marine biologist Casper Van de Geer said turtles need quiet, sandy beaches. There, they can lay eggs. Large tourist resorts or housing developments disturb that process.
"Light and noise scare them off," he said. "They lay their eggs above the high water mark. The nest has to be warm and above the water. So erosion affects that."
Local Ocean Trust runs a rehabilitation center in Watamu. Van de Geer manages it. Sick or injured turtles are nursed back to health. The group also compensates fishermen for turtles caught in their nets or found sick or injured.
"A big adult turtle can fetch up to $500 on the black market," Van de Geer said. "Fishermen earn about $100 a month, in a good month. So one turtle is almost half a year of work.
"Turtle conservation is crucial. Because it also protects the habitat for thousands of other species," which include sharks, dolphins and whales, Van de Geer said. "By protecting turtles, you are protecting beaches, mangroves, open ocean, reefs and sea grass. (It) is virtually every ecosystem in the tropical ocean."
Dr. Richard Leakey is the chairman of the governmental Kenya Wildlife Service. He said that while tourism and humans have invariably affected the environment, locally run projects on Kenya's coast have sustained endangered turtle population over the past decade.
"The situation these days is much better," Leakey said. "We still have problems with turtles getting stuck in trawler nets. But we've seen very positive signs regarding turtle numbers."
The Local Ocean Trust has rescued turtles and sent them back to the ocean 13,750 times. This is over the past 20 years of working in Watamu. The figures are according to Van de Geer. One turtle tagged in Watamu was later found in the Chagos archipelago. That is 2,300 miles away, he said.
"From Mozambique, to Australia, to India and Thailand, we all have a stake in this," he said. "The beach here has an impact on the entire ocean. That's the weird and amazing thing about turtles."
Of species found in Kenya, the Hawksbill turtle is critically endangered. The Green turtle is endangered. The Leatherback, Olive Ridley and Loggerhead turtles are vulnerable to becoming extinct. That is according to the International Union for Conservation of Nature.
"Despite our efforts, man remains the turtle's most serious enemy," Van de Geer said.
CRITICAL THINKING QUESTION
Why is it in Kenya's best interest to balance turtles and tourism?
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