How a children's toy could help fight malaria
How a children's toy could help fight malaria Manu Prakesh spins his Paperfuge. (Stanford University/Kurt Hickman/Food and Drug Administration )
How a children's toy could help fight malaria
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One of the most basic and necessary pieces of equipment in medical labs is a centrifuge. It is often bulky and expensive. This device (in the most simple terms) spins things. And spinning things like blood can separate out its parts. It allows doctors to diagnose diseases like malaria. But the lack of electricity and resources in rural regions around the world means no centrifuge. Now, a simple new 20-cent gadget could change all that. It's based on an unusual source of inspiration. That is the whirligig.
"There are more than a billion people around the world who have no infrastructure. No roads. No electricity," says Manu Prakash. He is a physical biologist at Stanford. He is the inventor of the new gadget. When he visited Uganda in 2013, he found that clinics either did not have centrifuges or didn't have the juice to power them. "One clinic used its broken centrifuge as a doorstop," Prakash tells Devin Powell at Nature.
"I realized that if we wanted to solve a critical problem like malaria diagnosis, we needed to design a human-powered centrifuge that costs less than a cup of coffee," Prakash says in a press release.
When he returned to Stanford, Prakash began brainstorming ideas. He did this with one of his post-docs, Saad Bhamla. They examined all sorts of spinning things, reports Madeline K. Sofia at NPR. They quickly began focusing on old-school, preindustrial toys like yo-yos and whirligigs.
"One night I was playing with a button and string. And out of curiosity, I set up a high-speed camera to see how fast a button whirligig would spin. I couldn't believe my eyes," Bhamla says in the press release. The button was rotating at 10,000 to 15,000 rpms.
The pair began prototyping small hand-powered centrifuges. They were based on the whirligig principle. Their final model was the Paperfuge. It spins at 125,000 rpm. That is equal to a centrifuge costing $1,000 to $5,000. This is according to the press release.
The Paperfuge is made of a disk of paper coated in a polymer, reports Sofia. The disk is attached to two pieces of wood or PVC pipe via string. When the strings are pulled, the disc in the middle spins. This acts as a centrifuge for a blood sample attached to the center of the disk. The team describes their work in the journal Nature Biomedical Engineering.
Prakash and Bhamla recently returned from successful field trials of the Paperfuge in Madagascar. They used it to test for malaria. The gadget only takes two minutes to separate blood, reports The Economist. It takes 15 minutes of whirligigging for malaria-diagnosing separations.
Once the blood is separated it needs to be examined by a microscope. Luckily, several years ago Prakash also created the Foldscope. It is a $1 paper microscope. It has optical quality similar to conventional microscopes. It will begin distribution in 2018.

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How can a microscope only cost $1?
Write your answers in the comments section below

  • mitchellh-kut
    5/10/2017 - 01:54 p.m.

    I think it cool that a toy can help malaria the disease and how cheap because of how it is made up from a disk and two pices of wood with strings attached to it and it spins the disk as soon as you pull it and it helps malaria

  • amira-bur
    5/15/2017 - 02:02 p.m.

    Because it's made out of paper that is why it's worth one dollar.

  • JASMINEJ-whi
    7/06/2017 - 09:55 a.m.

    i feel this is a very bright idea that came to mind i feel its very useful and should recieve an award. it helps the sick and nothing is more better than that.

  • Brooke S-man
    10/18/2018 - 05:18 p.m.

    A microscope can only cost one dollar because people who invent things want to help the world, and let people have access to objects that usually cost hundreds of dollars, and instead make things cost a dollar. By using paper, an easily accessible resource, and making an invention with it, if it's not too much money for the inventor to make than it shouldn't be too much money to sell.

  • Elliot B-man
    10/18/2018 - 05:48 p.m.

    that is amazing and really smart

  • Mallory R-man
    10/18/2018 - 06:19 p.m.

    It only cost a dollar because the supplies which were used were very cheap. The supply was paper, and paper is inexpensive.

  • Brandon K-man
    10/18/2018 - 06:25 p.m.

    A microscope can only cost $1 by the creator or dealer making it that price so that it is easily accessible to countries, people and civilizations in need.

  • Lila B-man
    10/18/2018 - 06:47 p.m.

    The microscope is made of paper and is foldable.

  • Maggie P-man
    10/18/2018 - 07:17 p.m.

    A microscope can only cost one dollar because it could be made out of cheaper materials. The cheaper materials could be paper, cardboard, and other cheap, every day items.

  • Ruby D-man
    10/18/2018 - 07:39 p.m.

    It could only cost one dollar so that more people can buy it. IT should cast one dollar because it is made with less care than the expensive microscopes. It could also only cost $1.00 because the people who made it didn't put a lot of there money into making it, they could have also hardly put anytime into making it.

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