Assign to Google Classroom
The soaring, white transportation hub at the World Trade Center in New York City was designed to evoke a bird in flight. But it is hatching under a cloud.
There will be no ribbon-cutting celebration when the train station's grand hall opens. It is called Oculus. That is because the head of the agency that controls the hub has criticized it. He called it a "symbol of excess." The hub's runaway costs are approaching $4 billion.
It's roughly the same price as the nation's tallest skyscraper. That building is next door. It is One World Trade Center. The skyscraper rises 104 stories.
"The cost of projects, big and small, matters. A lot," said Patrick Foye in a statement. He is executive director of the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey. "Whether due to unforeseen conditions, errors or misconduct, cost overruns consume precious resources. And undermine public confidence."
Officials had indicated that there would be no ceremony at all. But they said the transit facility would partially open March 3. A ceremony will be held, however. It will happen when the hub becomes "fully operational." That's expected later this spring.
The hub includes a commuter rail station, retail shops and connections to several subway lines. The hub appears destined to take its place among the city's most talked-about landmarks.
The hub is intended to serve partly as a monument. It remembers the victims of the Sept. 11 attacks. The hub was designed by a Spanish-born architect. His name is Santiago Calatrava. His idea is to convey the feeling of a bird released into the air. Its steel wings are poised for takeoff. But not everyone likes the design. Some critics have compared it to a dinosaur skeleton. Or even an armadillo.
Adjacent skyscrapers can be seen through the bird's curved white ribs. They enclose a vaulted, cathedral-like space.
"It is a monument to life. It is a monument of faith in this city. And a monument dedicated to the people," Calatrava said. He recently was taking a tour.
The station is replacing one that served PATH trains. They travel to and from New Jersey. The station was destroyed along with the twin towers in 2001. Though some parts of the hub are still under construction, PATH trains will ultimately be connected to 11 New York City subway lines. The trains also will connect to ferries. Shops and restaurants are scheduled to open this summer. They will give tourists and commuters a reason to linger.
"I think of the person who comes to New York commuting . . . and has to go to work maybe in a cellar and do a very simple work," Calatrava said. "In this minute that I am here, I can at least enjoy a place in which somebody is saying, 'You are an important guy.'"
Steve Plate is the chief of major capital projects for the Port Authority. He called the hub "the eighth wonder of the world." And he described how the building "is aligned precisely to allow the sun to come in exactly in that opening on Sept. 11 at 10:28." That is when the second tower fell. The hub will capture that light to remember that moment.
Calatrava's design for the transportation hub was announced in 2004. It was budgeted to cost $2 billion. At the time, New York Gov. George Pataki said it would be finished by 2009.
The Port Authority puts the current cost at $3.9 billion. That's because of overruns and delays. They have been blamed on factors including the architect's exacting demands and the complexity of building the hub while the Sept. 11 museum and new office towers were also under construction.
The new complex is a marvel of engineering. It was built around, beneath and above an existing, still-operating subway line. That line is the No. 1 train. It now passes through the new hub on a 200-foot-long bridge. It has no support columns. The decision to keep the subway line intact was partly responsible for the huge cost.
Calatrava, 64, is best known for train stations in European cities. They include Lisbon and Zurich. He has complained of being unfairly blamed for cost overruns at the trade center. He told The Wall Street Journal last May, "I have been treated like a dog."
The Port Authority's Plate defended the building's costs.
"We had an obligation to do something very special," he said. "We did it very wisely, very prudently, very intensely to make sure we got the best product, the best quality and the most historic structure. We feel very strongly that the mission has been accomplished."
CRITICAL THINKING QUESTION
Why doesn't everyone feel the same way about the new transit hub?
Write your answers in the comments section below