Are you brave enough to be a lion guard?
Standing 20 feet from a lion, Charles Tshuma was armed with just a plastic horn. It is called a vuvuzela. He and some neighbors blew the vuvuzelas to frighten away a lion. But the big cat did not budge.
They kept blowing their horns and shouting and screaming. Finally, the lion turned away and ambled back into Hwange National Park. The big cat was leaving Tshuma's rural community.
It is not always so easy, said Tshuma.
Sometimes people in the village do not want to join in to chase away the lions. Instead, they lock themselves indoors, he said.
That is the life of Zimbabwe's lion guards. They are brave community members. Each is selected and trained to prevent attacks on humans and cattle by the big cats. The lions stray from the unfenced Hwange Park. The park sprawls over 5,625 square miles. It is in western Zimbabwe. The country is in Africa.
The killing of Cecil the lion by an American hunter near Hwange Park in July caused worldwide anger. But the biggest threat to Hwange's more than 500 lions is conflict with surrounding cattle farmers. That is according to researchers. The inventive lion guard program is designed to protect both humans and lions.
Oxford University's Lions Research Project has tracked and studied over 30 lion families. Lion families are called prides. The research project has been working for 15 years. Oxford is in England. Seeing many attacks by lions wandering out of the park, the researchers in 2007 launched the Long Shields program. Its goal is to reduce conflicts between lions and humans.
Since then, there has been a 40 percent decline in those conflicts. That is according to Brent Stapelkamp. He is a researcher with the Oxford project. Many of Hwange's lions have collars with satellite tracking devices. So the researchers can inform surrounding villages when and where lions have left the park.
The lion guards are set with mountain bikes, mobile phones and a GPS tracker. The guards go to the area to turn back the straying lions. They blow their vuvuzelas. And they alert other members of the community. People then gather. They carry whips and sticks. Some wear lion-like masks. They play drums and clap wooden blocks together. The idea is to scare away the lions. The people also use bright lights and light watch fires at night.
The name Long Shields refers to the Matabele warriors. They lived in the late 19th century. They were known as "the people of the long shields." That is because of the tall rawhide shields they carried into battle.
Even though there's an average of 30 lions-human conflicts per month, communities surrounding Hwange have seen a decline in lions attacking cattle.
"We definitely know that the program has actually been able to chase some lions from the community back into the park. So in that way it becomes effective," said Lovelater Sedede. She is a parks ecologist. But she warns: "Lions running away from the sound of vuvuzelas do not totally remove the problem. Lions could get used to it. And hence there is need for more research methods to fight lion and human conflict."
The surrounding communities are pleased with the results.
"We have noticed that the challenges from predators have gone down. Our animals are protected and the predators are kept away," said Vincent Mangenyo, a local leader.
Forty percent of the deaths of lions in the Oxford study are at the hands of livestock owners. Or as a result of their attacks on livestock, said Stapelkamp. Those represent the single biggest cause of lions' death.
"I cannot tell the world that lions are the most important thing in the world and we must conserve them," he said. "I cannot. Because there are people who are hungry, starving in Zimbabwe. They lose all their livestock to a lion in a night."
But thanks to the Long Shield guards, not only are livestock saved, noted Stapelkamp, so are lions.
CRITICAL THINKING QUESTION
Why is scaring off the lions the best defense?
Write your answers in the comments section below